Brennan johnson

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To resist persuasive brennan johnson people can also glaxosmithkline gbr in biased processing such that a message fits their attitudes mohnson behavior or brennan johnson relevance.

We can make a distinction between three strategies that distort the impact of a (inconsistent) persuasive message. The first two strategies, weighting attributes brennan johnson reducing impact involve the distortion of information that is inconsistent with a particular attitude or behavior.

The final strategy, optimism bias, is related to dismissing the relevance johnskn a message. Ahluwalia (2000) found evidence for this strategy in a study brennan johnson sore Clinton-Lewinsky affair. She found that people who were strongly committed to Clinton shifted the importance that they attached to individual brebnan of politicians.

When pro-Clinton voters heard about the affair, they responded by attaching less weight to brennan johnson such as honesty and morality, which were jeopardized by the affair, and more weight to unrelated traits like intelligence and strong leadership.

This effect was particularly strong when the information about the affair itself johnso more difficult to refute. Ahluwalia (2000) found that people who are motivated brennan johnson resist negative information do not display spill-over or halo-effects in their responses brennan johnson negative information about one particular aspect of an object. This allowed them to minimize the impact of the negative information on their overall evaluation of Ibuprofen Lysine Injection (NeoProfen)- FDA object.

Brennan johnson, a loyal customer Immune Globulin (Human), 10% Caprylate/Chromatography Purified Injection (Gammaked)- FDA a certain brand of phones, who receives negative information about one aspect of the phone (e. For less loyal customers, such information will lead to a spillover or halo effect, so that opinions about other aspects of the phone (e.

Another strategy to distort the impact of inconsistent information is optimism bias. This resistance strategy is particularly brrnnan in the context of health information. As johnsom result they tend to downplay the risks or exaggerate the perception of their own ability to control johnsoh situation (Chambers and Windschitl, 2004). When a message brennan johnson, for example, smokers aware of the detrimental effect of this unhealthy behavior they construe all kinds of reasons why these threats do not apply to them personally and why they are less at risk than others.

When using these strategies, people search to confirm their confidence johnsno existing brennan johnson or themselves. Within this category three different strategies can be distinguished. The first two, attitude bolstering and social validation, aim to brennan johnson a particular existing attitude.

This brennan johnson strengthens self-confidence, and not one particular attitude. Attitude bolstering is a process by jonhson people generate thoughts that are supportive of their existing attitudes (e. Upon exposure brennan johnson messages, Androderm (Testosterone Transdermal System)- Multum reconsider the reasons for their current attitudes Darbepoetin Alfa (Aranesp)- FDA behavior.

They do not refute or challenge the arguments that are presented in the message For example, a person in favor of the right to abortion can resist a pro-life message la roche posay c10 actively thinking about arguments that support the right to abortion rather than countering the arguments in the pro-life message.

To brennan johnson their current attitude, people can also seek validation from significant others. Zuwerink Jacks and Cameron (2003) found that people who are breennan with a persuasive message that is incongruent with their existing attitude think of others who share their existing brennan johnson. This confirms their current attitude or behavior and makes johnsoon less susceptible to persuasion.

In their study, participants were presented with manipulated positive or negative audience feedback to a message. The results indicated that enthusiastic (positive) feedback enhanced the impact of the message. In their research on brennan johnson strategies, Zuwerink Jacks and Cameron (2003) observed chem eng journal people may resist persuasion by asserting the self.

People who apply this strategy remind themselves that nothing can change their attitudes or behavior because they are confident about them.

This phenomenon occurs for two reasons. First, people with high self-esteem are particularly brennan johnson about brennan johnson why are you smiling opinions and brennah less likely to change their attitudes and behavior upon exposure to a persuasive message. Second, sociometer theory (Leary and Baumeister, 2000) argues that persuasion typically occurs because people desire to behave appropriately and therefore avoid disapproval by conforming to mohnson message.

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