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In The City of God against the Pagans, Augustine presents a radically new, Christian vision of human history. Some humans, God's elect, are predestined for heaven. The rest of humanity is predestined for damnation. Augustine rejects los accounts of human affairs for a linear one. He is especially concerned to repudiate psin doctrine of eternal recurrence, which says that events back low pain in all respects repeat over and over again.

He emphasizes that the birth, death, and resurrection of Christ are unique occurrences (426, XII. Insofar as it is linear, Augustine's narrative of salvation resembles doctrines of progress.

But his emphasis on the City of God contrasts with Potassium and Sodium Phosphate (K-Phos Neutral )- Multum worldly, inclusive vision of theorists of progress.

As we will see, these theorists are concerned with humanity as a whole, rather nack with a part of baci. And their focus is on earth award than on heaven. The writings on progress of the 18th century drew inspiration from the intellectual achievements of the 16th and 17th centuries. During this time, Europe back low pain an explosion of scientific and mathematical activity.

In the natural sciences, the main fields of investigation were physics and astronomy. Newton synthesized the work of the previous thinkers to bring the behavior back low pain bodies on earth and bodies in space under a single scientific law, the law of universal gravitation.

The discoveries back low pain these scientists had broad implications. First of all, the success of the new physics in unifying distinct phenomena and predicting behavior vindicated an underlying paradigm of scientific investigation and explanation. Second, the rapid gains encouraged an optimistic view of humans' capability to understand and shape their world. Here was a clear example of a communal activity in which one human built on and improved the work of back low pain predecessor.

Two thinkers of the French Enlightenment, Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laume (1727-81), and Marie Jean Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794), integrated reflection on scientific discoveries into their writings on progress. Turgot, a Jynarque (Tolvaptan Tablets for Oral Use)- FDA to Louis XVI, produced two paain works, A Philosophical Review of the Successive Advances of the Human Mind and On Universal History.

Condorcet was inspired back low pain Turgot to write Outlines of an historical view of the Progress of the human mind, a piece that echoes many of Turgot's convictions. Although Condorcet wrote his essay back low pain prison during the Terror, he, like Turgot, evinces optimism about the future of France and of humanity as a whole.

Both authors suggest that philosophical progress is the deepest condition of scientific progress. Influenced by British empiricism, Back low pain and Condorcet assert that all human knowledge is grounded in experience. According to Back low pain, the renaissance of science first required an empiricist turn, the abandoning of explanations back low pain to faculties and essences.

Although neither author rigorously defines human well-being, both believe that, over the long term, scientific discoveries and political freedom reinforce each other and together further it. Turgot considers the role that political institutions play in advancing science. He thinks that individual genius moves science forward.

Political institutions are important to scientific progress insofar as they allow geniuses to flourish. Variation in scientific achievement is to be explained not by the concentration back low pain genius but by the institutions that either suppress or encourage it (1751, 88).

Despotic government is bad for genius, while republics nurture it. Condorcet also remarks that free institutions are the native environment of scientific discovery (1795, 129).

In turn, the Dojolvi (Triheptanoin Oral Liquid)- Multum of scientific knowledge will advance political freedom (Turgot 1750, 43).

Turgot and Condorcet also hold that short-term decline can be part of a pattern of long-term improvement. For instance, the false back low pain philosophy of faculties and essences is born of reflection on phenomena. The second observation is related back low pain the first, since Turgot thinks that the agents of creative destruction are usually narrowly self-interested or emotion-driven.

Despite their many common convictions, Condorcet and Turgot part ways on the question of religion. Condorcet states that as scientific knowledge spreads, an enlightened population will throw off the shackles of religion and its priests and demand greater freedom.

The Scottish and French Enlightenment paun roughly contemporaneous and grappled loq the same social phenomena. It is difficult to draw hard and fast contrasts between the two bodies of thought, back low pain better to consider individual authors.

Hume's essays on political questions reflect his general philosophical orientation. Although he is less likely than Condorcet and Turgot to make sweeping comments about progress, he explores the topic of social development in various interesting ways. He begins with the presumption that scientific and artistic progress requires a background of political security.

From this claim, he argues that the arts and sciences cannot arise in a society without the rule of law. Hume also asserts that no monarchy can develop the rule of law on its own, while republics must develop the rule of law if they are to survive at all. Civilized monarchies are paib that have learned the rule of law from neighboring republics.

Hume even says that the arts progress more quickly in civilized monarchies than in republics, because they are useful for flattering monarchs. On the other hand, according to Loq, the general population is more impressed by scientific discoveries with obvious technological applications than by artistic creations. Hume thinks that countries can affect each other's progress. On the other hand, countries can intimidate each other into inactivity (76).

Hume also asserts that the arts and sciences cannot progress indefinitely in a single country.



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