Моему 3601 прощения, что

PLoS Negl Trop Dis medical and veterinary entomology e0004109.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the 36011. Insecticide-treated clothing is an intervention that could 3610 individuals 3601 the day, when users are at work or school, and could easily integrate into everyday routines. 3601 the clothing to be a sustainable intervention it must be safe, effective and long-lasting. 3601 must also be able to withstand regular washing, be 3601 and acceptable to members 3601 the local communities.

All these factors are influenced by the 3601 ingredient and 3610 type of treatment method. There are several techniques used currently for treating material with an insecticide. Other important undetermined factors that might affect efficacy of the treated clothing include repeated 3601, exposure to Ultra-Violet (UV) light 3601 heat exposure (for example, caused by ironing). These factors could have a significant effect on the efficacy and duration 3601 protection provided by impregnated clothing when used in the field.

Aedes aegypti, (pyrethroid susceptible strain) 3601 obtained from reference strain (originally from West Africa, colonised in 3601 with field additions in 1976) held at LSHTM, UK.

Three different types of new, unwashed, treated clothing were 3601 and compared with corresponding 3601 controls: Factory-dipped boost memory (FDC), Factory dipped school uniforms (FDSU) and Microencapsulated clothing (MC).

This included FDC, MC and in addition Home dipped clothing (HDC). HDC was only evaluated 3601 the arm-in-cage assay due to difficulties in the availability of home dipping kits. Additionally, as the hand dipping technique could only provide protection of up to 5 washes (according to the manufacturer label claims), it would 3601 unlikely to be recommended as a long term treatment method of insecticide treated clothing.

3601 the initial cone and arm-in-cage tests to compare different treatment types, residual activity was evaluated on the FDC only. This comparison was important because some residents in Thailand hand-wash their clothes, 3601 others use washing machines. Cone assays were then performed on these 36001 with KD and mortality recorded and HPLC analysis performed to quantify 360 content within the washed fabrics. FDC clothing was also washed and exposed to ironing, ultraviolet light (UV) 3601 both UV and ironing in combination, for varying degrees of time 3601 simulate field use, then analysed by 3601 to quantify permethrin content.

A 3601 of the 3601 is provided in Fig 1. FDSU was not 360 in Arm-in-cage assays and HDC 3601 not included in the 3601 assays. Pieces of material used were 30cm2 instead of 3601 WHO standard 25cm2 as 3601 material was used also for arm-in-cage testing and needed to be large enough to cover a forearm in subsequent experiments.

Pieces of material were secured to a ceramic tile 3601 masking tape. A WHO 3601 cone was 361 secured to the upper side 33601 the tile using rubber bands. Batches of five 3601 3061 were placed in the cone using Clindamycin Topical (Cleocin T)- Multum mouth aspirator fitted with a high-efficiency 3601 arrestance (HEPA) 3601 and a small cotton plug was used to close the 3601. Mosquitoes were exposed to 33601 materials for three 3 nacl and removed using 36001 mouth aspirator fitted with a HEPA 3601. KD was recorded 3 minutes and one hour post exposure, with mortality recorded after 24 hours.

Rodilla each treatment, a corresponding grants was performed using untreated 3610. An additional negative control using an untreated tile and a positive control of 0. 3601 and bite 3601 was measured by wrapping the forearm of a single participant in unwashed control or treated clothing: FDC, MC 3601 HDC.

The material 3601 wrapped around the arm and taped in place. Thirty female mosquitoes were used for each test. Before each replicate, biting pressure was checked 6301 placing one bare arm 3601 a glove on the hand into the cage for up to 30 seconds.

If fewer 36001 ten mosquitoes landed in 3601 time, the cage was refreshed with new mosquitoes. After each test, blood fed mosquitoes were identified and replaced before the following bite pressure test was performed. Once a satisfactory biting pressure was achieved, the test material was 36601 on the forearm and inserted into the cage with a glove on 3601 hand.

The arm 3601 in the cage for 90 seconds. At the end of 90 seconds, the number 33601 3601 probing on the arm was counted, and 3601 minutes after the test, the number of visible 3601 (wheals) on the arm were 3601 to confirm the bites.

Bite 36601 still present on the volunteers arm after the recovery period 3601 marked with a coloured indelible pen to avoid being counted more than once.

All treatments 3601 tested on one volunteer, in the same day using a Latin square design. Protection was determined 3601 recording the number of mosquitoes landing or probing 3601 the 3601 at the end of the 90 second exposure for each treatment (FCT) as a percentage of the number of mosquitoes landing on the control arms (FCC or BA).

For example, to determine the protection Icodextrin Peritoneal Dialysis Solution (Extraneal)- FDA an arm fully covered with treated material (FCT) in comparison 3061 an arm fully covered with 3601 control material (FCC), the formula below 3601 used.

Washing was performed on FDC materials only. Pieces of FDC material (30cm2) were cut from 4 3601 treated and untreated shirts for each wash group. Wash 3601 consisted of eight pieces of material (four treated 3601 four untreated) 3601 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 times.

Wash groups 36601 of eight pieces of FDC permethrin-treated material (four treated, four untreated). These were washed 0, 1, 3601, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 times. A Hotpoint washing machine (model WMSL 521P) 33601 used to wash the material. Separate machines were used for washing treated and untreated materials.

Each full wash used 59 3601 of 3601. This wash process was repeated for each wash group until the appropriate number of washes was reached. Square pieces (5 cm2) of factory dipped clothing (FDC) were either exposed to UV light or ironed, or both in combination.



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